redirect https and without www

Enabling HTTP Secure (HTTPS)
Last updated 4 August 2018. Created on 11 November 2009.
Edited by John Morahan, hiten2112, marcoka, Joel MMCC. Log in to edit this page.

HTTPS is a protocol which encrypts HTTP requests and their responses. This ensures that if someone were able to compromise the network between your computer and the server you are requesting from, they would not be able to listen in or tamper with the communications.

When you visit a site via HTTPS, the URL looks like this: https://drupal.org/user/login. When you visit a site via plain (unencrypted) HTTP, it looks like this: http://drupal.org/user/login.

Why is it important to you (and when)
HTTPS is typically used in situations where a user would send sensitive information to a website and interception of that information would be a problem. Commonly, this information includes:

Credit cards
Sensitive cookies such as PHP session cookies
Passwords and Usernames
Identifiable information (Social Security number, State ID numbers, etc)
Confidential content
Especially in situations where you, as the administrator, are sending your Drupal password or the FTP password for your server, you should use HTTPS whenever possible to reduce the risk of compromising your web site.

Moreover, HTTPS is now required for HTML5 Geolocation to work in nearly all modern browsers for privacy reasons! This is at the JavaScript implementation level, so the module used to supply this (e.g. GeoField [“Lat/Long” Widget] or IP Geolocation Views & Maps [“Set my location” Block] among others) cannot override it. If you attempt to use this over HTTP in any such browser (the only exceptions these days are dangerously outdated browsers such as on old Android devices and maybe some computers still running Windows XP or a PowerPC version of Mac OS X), it will not work and you will not get an error message explaining why (except perhaps in the browser’s Developer Tools Error Console) — the underlying JavaScript function calls simply won’t execute over HTTP. So if your web application needs to know where the visitor is without requiring typing in an address or manual Lat/Long coordinates, you must use HTTPS.

HTTPS can also prevent eavesdroppers from obtaining your authenticated session key, which is a cookie sent from your browser with each request to the site, and using it to impersonate you. For example, an attacker may gain administrative access to the site if you are a site administrator accessing the site via HTTP rather than HTTPS. This is known as session hijacking and can be accomplished with tools such as Firesheep.

Security is a balance. Serving HTTPS traffic costs more in resources than HTTP requests (both for the server and web browser) and because of this you may wish to use mixed HTTP/HTTPS where the site owner can decide which pages or users should use HTTPS. Though, with improved SSL/TLS efficiency and faster hardware, the overhead is less than it once was. Many security experts are now urging that all web-related traffic should go over HTTPS, and that the benefits far outweigh the cost (especially given the relatively new existence of Let’s Encrypt [see below]).

How to enable HTTPS support in Drupal
Web server configuration
Get a certificate. Many hosting providers set these up for you — either automatically or for a fee. You can also use Let’s Encrypt which is free, automated, and open Certificate Authority. If you want to secure a test site, you could instead generate a self-signed certificate.
Configure your web server. A few helpful links:
Apache instructions.
Nginx instructions
Ubuntu instruction
Chances are, your webhost can do this for you if you are using shared or managed hosting.

Note: Clean URLs If you're using Apache for HTTP and HTTPS:
You will probably have two different VirtualHost buckets.

A bucket for port :80 http
A bucket for port :443 https
Each of these VirtualHost containers or buckets require that a specific Apache directive be added within them if you're using Clean URLs. This is because Drupal makes extensive use of .htaccess and mod_rewrite to provide friendly URLs.

Ensure you have the following within the directive, which is a child under the VirtualHost container: See Apache Documentation for AllowOverride

AllowOverride All

This means that your .htaccess takes precedence and that the Apache configuration will allow it to run as you would expect for Drupal.

Troubleshooting:
If you enabled HTTPS and it only works on the homepage and your sub links are broken, it's because the VirtualHost:443 bucket needs AllowOverride All enabled so URLs can be rewritten while in HTTPS mode.

Drupal configuration
On Drupal 7, if you want to support mixed-mode HTTPS and HTTP sessions, open up sites/default/settings.php and add $conf['https'] = TRUE;. This enables you use the same session over both HTTP and HTTPS -- but with two cookies where the HTTPS cookie is sent over HTTPS only. You will need to use contributed modules like securepages to do anything useful with this mode, like submitting forms over HTTPS. While your HTTP cookie is still vulnerable to all usual attacks. A hijacked insecure session cookie can only be used to gain authenticated access to the HTTP site, and it will not be valid on the HTTPS site. Whether this is a problem or not depends on the needs of your site and the various module configurations. For example, if all forms are set to go through HTTPS and your visitors can see the same information as logged in users, this is not a problem.

Note that in Drupal 8, mixed-mode support has been removed #2342593: Remove mixed SSL support from core.

For even better security, send all authenticated traffic through HTTPS and use HTTP for anonymous sessions. On Drupal 8, install Secure Login module which resolves mixed-content warnings. On Drupal 7, leave $conf['https'] at the default value (FALSE) and install Secure Login. Drupal 7 and 8 automatically enable the session.cookie_secure PHP configuration on HTTPS sites, which causes SSL-only secure session cookies to be issued to the browser. On Drupal 6, see contributed modules 443 Session and Secure Login.

For best possible security, set up your site to only use HTTPS, and respond to all HTTP requests with a redirect to your HTTPS site. Drupal 7's $conf['https'] can be left at its default value (FALSE) on pure-HTTPS sites. Even then, HTTPS is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks if the connection starts out as a HTTP connection before being redirected to HTTPS. Use the HSTS module or Security Kit module, or set the Strict-Transport-Security header in your webserver, and add your domain to the browser HSTS preload list, to help prevent users from accessing the site without HTTPS.

You may want to redirect all traffic from http://example.com and http://www.example.com to https://example.com. You can do this by adding the code below to your server configuration file, i.e., the VirtualHost definitions:

ServerName www.example.com
Redirect "/" "https://www.example.com/"

ServerName www.example.com
# ... SSL configuration goes here

The use of RewriteRule would be appropriate if you don't have access to the main server configuration file, and are obliged to perform this task in a .htaccess file instead:

RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off [OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.example\.com*
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://example.com/$1 [L,R=301]
There are existing comments in .htaccess that explain how to redirect http://example.com to http://www.example.com (and vice versa), but this code here redirects both of those to https://example.com.

Receipes
Redirect all requests wo https://www.url.de
I was adding https to a drupal multisite installation. http should be forced on all urls and hhtp is not possible no more. You get this with:

# uncomment the following:
#1
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} .
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteRule ^ https://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]

# 2 Redirect to HTTPS
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off
RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-Proto} !https
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [L,R=301]
#1 is a modified version of the standard htaccess directive and #2 is taken from drupal 8 htaccess

This redirects al old http urls with a 301 to https://www.url.de
Remember that http access is not possible correctly no more with this because i removed {ENV:protossl}

Most of the time Drupal Developers face this problem while installing new modules and themes, They encountered with problem like "ERROR : You are not using an encrypted connection, so your password will be sent in plain text." . So I recommend all of them first give permission to your drupal_directory and sites and themes,Run few command that may help you before going through the whole technical part..
In linux
sudo chown www-data:www-data -R /var/www/html/drupal_directory/sites
In mac
sudo chown -R www:www /Library/WebServer/Documents/drupal_directory/sites